Tags: bisexual, gay, indonesia, indonesian, lesbian, lgbt, transgender · 14 likes · Like mungkin karena saking langka nya buku LGBT Indonesia:p. reply | flag *. PUITIKA SASTRA WANITA DALAMNOVEL raukhamatfrogal.tk DOWNLOAD DISINI KOLEKSI NOVEL-NOVEL INDONESIA Lainnya akan segera Hadir. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | In this article I explore how Indonesians come to see themselves as lesbi or gay through fragmentary With regard to lesbi and gay Indonesians, my goal is to develop a theory waria. For instance, the tomboi protagonist in the novel.
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PDF | Thousands of Indonesian men now identify as both “gay” and “Muslim. [ Keywords: incommensurability, Indonesia, Islam, nation, homosexuality]. Keywords Asma Nadia, Novel Dakwah, Forum Lingkar Pena, Stuart Hall, Representasi Teori queer, kajian film, Indonesia. Full Text: PDF Homosexuality? edited by D. Altman and e. al. Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the. Editorial Reviews. Review. “Against the killings of those years and the collective amnesia used Autobiography of My Hungers (Living Out: Gay and Lesbian Autobiog). Rigoberto Eka Kurniawan was born in Tasikmalaya, Indonesia in
Homosexual Oppression and Liberation. Angus and Robertson. Aids and Reconceptualization of Homosexuality. In Which Homosexuality? Altman and e. Angelides, Stephen and Craig Bird. Feeling Queer: Critical InQueeries 1 1: Anwar, Joko. Gay, Lesbian Film Fest Soon. Critical Theories, Critical Thinkers. Benshoff, Harry M, and Sean Griffin. Queer Cinema: America on Film: Malden MA: Blackwell Publishing. Blackwood, Evelyn. Tombois in West Sumatra: Constructing Masculinity and Erotic Desire.
Cultural Anthropology 13 4: Boellstorff, Tom. The Gay Archipelago: Sexuality and Nation in Indonesia. Princeton University Press. Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity.
Chauncey, George. Gay New York: Basic Books. Corber, Robert J, and Stephen Valocchi. Queer Studies: An Interdisciplinary Reader. Driscoll, Sally O' Outlaw Reading: Beyond Queer Theory. Journal of Women in Culture and Society 22 1: Dynes, Wayne R.
Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. Garland Publishing. But she arouses his thirst Cixous: In the myth, as interpreted by both Utami and Cixous, it is woman who brings knowledge and pleasure into the world by taking a bite of the apple.
In Larung Only he knows what really happened to his mother and his siblings. Wis knew that in the forest near the well her mother Upi was left behind in the burning huts. But when she was where she was she was a very warm woman and aroused affection so that her husband and people forgot about that other part of her, which was difficult to understand.
A raden Ayu is a descendant of Javanese nobility. Perhaps even made love to them. Wis knew that something was very close to his mother, something that loved her. Sometimes he could hear and sense another man who was never seen.
They had the lost children together. It hurt Wis that his mother had someone else the father did not know of. His father always stayed by his wife in spite the strange disappearances of the babies and the mental disappearances of his wife. This part suggests that we have to accept another, more mysterious and wild side of woman, besides her being a mother.
She is still lovely and fulfils her role. None of them only belong to him. They appear as archetypes and are motifs of the silent parents.
This part delves into history and has mystical elements. The long description of Simbah in her ageing state is awful. Larung tells her story as he traces her past: But Simbah was once strong, proud and courageous. She ran away with a Dutchman from her royal Balinese family at the end of the 19 century. This was a great sin and she never returned or asked th forgiveness from her parents. Instead she drifted around with her husband. Therefore she cannot die. Larung has asked his mother if it is wrong to search for ilmu.
No, said mother, but her body is full of magic charms, her heart has small fish inside and her mind is full of mantra. No man near her has become of age […] The dukun takes Larung to a bat cave with an underground river leading to the South Sea or even on to Hades.
The dukun says with a reverberating voice: The people who killed your father, child. The same people took everyone they considered enemies, alive or dead, women and men with or without heads and threw them into the underground […] into a connecting stream of the same river […] It was , people here shiver from just remembering the number of the year […] The bats, Simbah and her androgynous dukun friend are linked to the tale of the widow, which is told from a female perspective In the 11 century Dhaha, Calon Arang taught black magic and bore hatred because she th was a widow and her only daughter, beautiful Ratna Manjali, did not get any proposals.
My man, why did I let you marry me? Manjali left her husband one night and followed the steps of the four pupils and Calon Arang. But time, perhaps the curse, changed her body. There lived thousands of the ones defeated by the priests.
When Larung performs his magic euthanasia on Simbah it is as if her eyes speak to him. No one asked what was his fault. No, I said. Life is only about making choices. Your husband, my child, was probably not a Communist and the Communist party probably did not stage a coup, but what does it all matter? People had to point out others to save themselves. So they mentioned his name. That was what happened. Like all animals we live by eating others and people were saved by sacrificing others.
Why do you feel strange? The dukun adds an anecdote to the tale. The goddess Durga worshipped by Calon Arang only became Durga after she, as beautiful Dewi Uma, had to give her body to a ferryman to be able to cross a river to reach her beloved husband, Siwa.
For this she was cursed by her husband and became an ugly giant with a hairy body and horns, half man, half woman later a holy body as Durga. Calon Arang was written as a classic tale by Toer .
It appeared as a feminist tale by Toeti Heraty b. She performs a long ritual, after which she has defeated Simbah. I am the oldest in this village. My daughter-in-law is not a gerwani. Even if she is a gerwani she has a baby that has to be brought up. But it is I who is gerwani. Then they left. Menantuku bukan gerwani. Kalaupun dia gerwani, dia punya bayi yang harus dibesarkan. Tapi akulah yang gerwani. Simbah says she was never surprised by evil and never cursed it. She had emptied herself, even from values and hope.
When Larung finally has performed his well- planned euthanasia, another non-sacral motif, he slices up Simbah to find the hidden mantra charms in her belly. But they are not there. Her power is finally revealed to reside in her guts, but not literally so. Calon Arang is like everything else in the novels deconstructed and viewed from the perspective of women, through whom the tale is revealed as an ideological construct of the male priests and kings, in which woman and her magic became cursed, ugly and rejected because of failing to live up to competing male norms.
The stories concerning Simbah are highly suggestive of female guts, which is female empowering.
The contemporary discourses connected with that era are distinct: Characters from the lower classes appear and are aided by characters of the middle classes; the ones exposed to such ideas. All parts of the novels, all social dialogues, are ideologically opposed to the New Order and traditional ideologies. The recent past has been bathed in both a new and an old light: All these dialogues are post change but still hot in their environment.
New things were said in new ways, which simply defines the novels as novels. Gender is discussed through sexuality. The examples show that she has done so in an anthropological, aesthetic and intelligent way. From a psychological view her literature is the least neurotic concerning sex and from a sociological view the least normative. Ayu Utami performed a form of shock therapy on the culture and politics her works are embedded in, and also on the literary tradition, as was once said about Pramoedya in Ayu Utami is the Anais Nin, the s icon of avant-garde female literature, of Indonesia.
The stark contrast between the portrayal of state violence and sexual pleasure accentuates the political aspects of the sex theme. The The motif is discussed further in Ayu Utami celebrates the body and this world.
All parts of the novels have elements that go down to the earth and debase the previously sacred. There is a semantic coherence in the fragments, after all.
Wisanggeni is in the wayang tradition a name of a fugitive and outcast of the wayang world, like Wis Saman is on the run from the authorities. Saman has left the church and the transcendent God to become involved with life. The Foucaultian thesis about the pervasiveness of power, that social forces bring into being the very thing they work to control, is affirmed in Shakuntala, which proves such efforts useless.
The strict militaristic father has nurtured a daughter with a worldview consciously opposed to his values and authority and his son perhaps became homosexual. Intentional formations have also been shaped by non-persuasive, authoritarian, enforced myths. The myths Shakuntala has been fed by her parents have also influenced her identity and rebellion. These myths were transmitted more or less as fairy tales and were revealed as such once Shakuntala became an adult.
Moreover, it influenced her ideas about marriage in a negative way. Wayan has found out about the lies about Lubang Buaya, which is also a myth. He has also come across forbidden socialist literature.
So, because the regime lies about history and fights Communism, he believes Communism is right Utami Larung is able to criticize their ideas but, like other characters, does not present any solutions, which is a post-modern characteristic: Shakuntala is almost pure ideology on the symbolical level. She even questions God, which is doubly blasphemous.
The identity formation described in Shakuntala is an indicator of change, revealing the fracturing of the prevailing New Order era types of gender ideologies. In Shakuntala, all assumptions about gender, norms, behaviours and identities break down. Her body configures itself as she dances. Therefore she is both man and woman, androgynous, or whatever she becomes. We are neither biologically fixed at birth, as in traditional ideology kodrat , nor do we have to be the social-cultural constructs that feminine and post-modern theories about gender and identity suggest that we are.
In Yasmin, too, femininity was repressed as she grew up. A part of this femininity is, according to Yasmin, her male side, which is one of the natural, multifaceted characters of a person. Yasmin found herself again with the rather androgynous Saman. Laila was helped by the androgynous Shakuntala who in turn had been healed by the pesinden.
In reality she is as wild as her astrological match Cok, who just tries to be herself. Myths and ideas about gender and virginity and sexual double standards, are torn apart in these characters. The less defined dichotomy of male and female, which is torn apart, is depicted as a natural, universal state of mind. The ambiguous view on new gender roles can partly be explained in the context of the breakdown of the previous system, which had provided defined gender roles and models of identity.
After the New Order, things are fleeting. The motif of the androgynous is strong. Durga is an androgynous goddess and a symbol of female power. Her followers, the dukun in the line of Calon Arang, are depicted as androgynous too, also Simbah. The androgynous motif stretches from Shakuntala to the hero figures that name the novels, both men who are lukewarm in commitment.
Physically, Saman is tiny; spiritually he is moral and sensible, stands up for the weaker, soft but courageous. He is a loner with a mother complex directed towards Yasmin. The story of how he performs euthanasia on his grandmother has revealed the wounds of his past; history is dissected as Simbah is dismembered.
Her power is finally revealed to be plain cold courage. In the process, Larung becomes fearless and faces his history, which the symbolism tells the reader to follow. Saman and Larung both die in the end, which is typical but not unrealistic, and links with the Calon Arang tale in which the apprentice Larung chooses death before surrender to Airlangga and Shiva. In the end of Larung, Larung scorns the officer who has arrested them. The officer snaps and kills his captives, which becomes a statement on the heroism of the indicted Indonesian military.
The male hero image and the female protagonists, and also the female itself, are here viewed and explained against the backdrop of the wider male world and the male antagonists connected with the New Order regime. The whole structure of violence is indicted.
The male heroes are located in the emergence of new male hero figures after They are soft but not weak, mysterious, caring, gentle, intellectual, committed, rather androgynous; they listen to and are inspired by women. Other male figures are either stereotypes or do not really appear. It is seemingly a dead generation; one that has left behind a legacy of KKN, debt, crises, East Timor and so on.
Their humanity is recognized but apparently they have nothing to add. Like Minke, Saman finally dies because of ideological conflict while trying to free his country but Minke is not murdered like Saman. Anwar in Friend Larung has recognized the man, or actually the uncle the man imitates, an uncle who has performed fake heroism in East Timor. Larung ridicules this uncle as a coward and says the Solidarlit activists are not important, only educators.
The mother image, rather mute bisu , is similar to the mother image in menyusu ayah. In the literature of liberal women the father image indeed appears as the controlling superego according to Yasmin it is the superego.
The anecdotal novel Swastika relates to the image of Shakuntala.
When Swastika has become an artist, she has arrived in the garden of her dreams. The garden of artists. The garden where I do not see the shadow of my harsh father who is always making plans for me. The garden where I can dance as I want in any style that I desire.
Here no one controls the steps that I take. Wulan Taman di mana aku tak melihat bayangan ayahku yang keras dan terus menyusun rencana atas diriku.
Taman di mana aku bisa menari sesukaku.
Dengan berbagai gaya yang kumau. Menyanyi dengan nada yang kuinginkan. Di sini taka da yang menyetir langkahku. Tak ada ayahku. At the extreme, the women advocate a predatory consumption of men.
Interpreted against the backdrop of the prevailing and changing gender ideologies, they reveal a dialectics linked to global images and ideas raping of men, feminism. But the feminism espoused is not generally anti-men, as is not uncommon in the West.
Even some of the military are human. But perhaps all this deconstruction of myths, history, culture, gender and religion is more efficient as shock therapy if an amount of stereotyping is involved, a kind of hyperbole technique, which is used in the conjuring up of Shakuntala? The military and the state, which are antagonists, only surface temporarily as characters, and their own speech is rarely represented, which is also true for the parental generation.
This is similar to some post-colonial texts. Voices opposed to the persistent and consistent deconstruction exist but are few, and are rarely represented in their own speech. Both theorists seek possibilities beyond dualisms. Loomba In the Cixousian framework dualisms of binary thinking ought to be resisted and there is a search for a feminine expression.
The former of these has been performed successfully, but the latter is more expressed as a search, expressed in dancing and the free exploration of body and mind. The male qualities appropriated by Shakuntala suggest that this search has only begun. The consistent deconstructions and the movement towards the human in all motifs are reasons why Ayu Utami can be perceived as a post-structuralist more than a post-modern author.
Discourses are identified with post-isms as they are based on notions of subjectivity and relativity: The dancing of Shakuntala, as a metaphor for the writing of Ayu Utami, and her freedom of identity, can be seen as floating and flowing like jazz, a motif in one of the first post-modern Indonesian novels Ajidarma , going off in whatever direction it likes without contradictions.
Characters change identity; Wisanggeni does so completely, to Saman. The unstructured fragmentary narrative resembles both the post-modern collage and the epistolary novel style: The realist illusion of modernist art is mostly maintained, including through the diaries and letters. The writer is not foregrounded but she appears in monoglossia, as in the poetic monologues of Laila and Shakuntala.
Because of the above reasons Utami is closer to the truth than to truths. She is modernist in that she is true and new. Micro-narratives are few. There are the poor in Perabumulih but the main characters all belong to the middle and upper middle classes.
The incorporation of Jakartan colloquial a Seno feature , previously confined to pop literature, is a post-modern characteristic. The dialogues and the transparent parts are straight in language; they are as it is blak- blakan and removed from moral euphemisms. This colloquial is a language of real humans that is actually spoken.
It is concrete, relative and the opposite of a monoglossia speaking of a utopian world. The consistent breaking up of previous ideologies, myths and histories proves an awareness of the fictional character of the ideological world, which surfaces, for example, when Wisanggeni tells his torturers that he is the New Order ghost they Sudden shifts in ideological orientation and identity in detached characters are common in the literature of Seno G.
On post-modernism in the literature of Seno, see for instance Fuller Myth breaking was part of the leitmotif: This is here interpreted against the backdrop referred to by Utami of a society fed on myths transmitted from government, schools, parents and religion. Myths have been revealed as such in the transparent literary language. When it comes to gender, men have generally written more emancipatory works than women. Before the global flow of ideas became intense in the s and s, there were few emancipatory works, but male authors such as S.
The emancipatory movements after independence were too close to the left and consequently aborted by the New Order regime, for which female emancipation was alien. Sexual depiction itself has a long history in Indonesian literature and is commonly seen on the reliefs of ancient Hindu-Buddhist temples. It is also a Javanese Kamasutra with explicit depictions of feudal sexual behaviour that far outdo the novels of the early 21 century, perhaps st Ode untuk Leopold von Sacher-Masoch exempted.
The novel Mata Gelap by Mas Marco Kartodikromo depicts in a straightforward way sexuality, including among the non-married as part of social criticism. In female-authored fiction with literary esteem, discussion and depiction of sexuality was, until recently, rare if not non-existent.
The attitude towards sexuality was always normative in accordance with the dominating ideologies. Nh Dini, an esteemed writer, caused a slight stir in the s for her attitude. She is unhappy in her marriage and has an affair. But in these novels, and in any female-authored novel of the times, there are no female bachelors that do not marry or are independent of men. Nevertheless, the novels depict and compare cultures and ongoing cultural changes in Indonesia.
Motifs of homosexuality, lesbianism and sexual deviations appeared in the s but were depicted in accordance with the wider ideological environment. Now female literature has gone mad sastra gila: Allow me to open your abdomen. I have not skinned anything for a long time but I still remember how. First, make a vertical cut in the middle of the body, from the point of the xiphois until simphisis pubis.
Then, cut crosswise upwards, from the bellybutton to the edge of the chest, until the sixth rib, one to the left and one to the right. He runs to his three mistresses with his organ standing and asks them to get undressed immediately.
The example is not the most excessive. Based on Hellwig who examined novels until Telah lama aku tidak mengupas kulit, tetapi masih kuingat caranya. Pertama, buatlah robekan vertikal tepat di tengah tubuh, dari ujung xiphois ke arah bawah hingga simphisis pubis. Lalu, gunting melintas ke ats, dari atas pusar ke pinggir dada, hingga ujung rusuk keenam, satu di kanan satu di kiri.
In the s, urban culture had changed sufficiently from the recent past and in fiction there is a clearcut break with the literary past of female-authored fiction with the novels by Rusmini  and Utami . Tarian Bumi and Saman bring up the previously unsaid about gender, body and sexuality from a female point of view. Ayu Utami tells of the subconscious and it is not far-fetched to interpret the sex-talk in her novels as therapy for repressed sexuality.
Their attitudes are accentuated towards the still prevailing norms of wider society. With this fact established we can move on to other female authors of the main emerging trend. Besides Ayu Utami, these women are on the whole rather apolitical. But the reason for including sex in their stories can be political in the cultural context, according to that slogan many of the writers are familiar with: It is a way of affirming rights of expression and behaviour.
They address taboos both directly and indirectly, for instance by raising minority groups, such as homosexuals, as characters in pluralist and post-modern fashion micro-narratives.
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Voices of the marginalised and suppressed were heard in Garis Tepi Seorang Lesbian, about lesbianism in pesantren and the social stigma lesbians suffer from. Taboos connected with sex and the body are highlighted in the literary languages of these authors and it is interesting for them and the reading public because conventions are torn apart.
In Indonesia, virginity is the official norm for the unmarried and sexual education is controversial, not yet given in schools.
In the novels of the main emerging trend, virginity is treated either as a problem or as something irrelevant surrounded by hypocrisy, even debased by Utami. Conversely, in the literary languages of the trend of consciously Muslim writers, virginity is emphasized as something very valuable. Maya Wulan and her first novel Swastika have been mentioned 3. Swastika accentuates sex and debases sexual double standards, not least the moral burden of virginity, which is laid on women.
Literature has become a site for open sexual discourse, perhaps the only public one except for newspaper and semi-fictional, documentary sex-surveys, next to the popular blue film vcds. Novels become an oasis for knowledge and awareness in the subject.
The phenomenon is evolutionary because the authors rebel against old norms but is also exploited by the different actors of cultural production authors, critics, publishers. Sex is part of the discourse on gender and a radical way to voice gender critique. As in the literary debates and the overall framework, the attitudes of authors in their fiction concerning this and related themes are considered important in the discussions here.
Each language system highlights and evaluates its material, old and new, in its own way in every era, which is both See for instance 3. So, with the influx of new alien discourses, such as those of NGOs, during the late New Order, together with a dialectics of pre New Order discourses, issues of gender and sex are highlighted and bathed in new light in the discursive formation of Malay.
The self-indulgence of main characters at times reaches masturbatory levels. It is a clear and celebratory sign of attitudes affirming individual freedom and life. The authors share a striking resemblance in attitudes and choices of themes and motifs. Yusuf can be exemplified by the list of groceries she brings to a mall while in Australia: Yusuf Different from the main characters of Abidah El Khalieqy see Her diary refers to The Vagina Monologues. Seperti tidak rela membaca bagian dari diriku dideskripsikan dalam sebuah monolog.
Atau diteriakkan di gedung-gedung kesenian dalam sebuah pembacaan oleh artis-artis. In the novel, medicinal and sexual terms are used and discussed frequently. The two gay lovers Gangga and Pras use several in a passage riddled with English words italicized.
Speaking to the partner: But […] is this going to be a one night stand? Do you talk about God? She is learning how to masturbate. When she has learned, she cries out: The text is like many of the novels by liberal female authors riddled with English words and Internet communications.
In this trend main characters are mostly of the upper middle classes, metropolitan, well educated often in the same field or profession as the author , travel internationally and have discussions about relations and sexual matters. In Saman and Larung, the characters visited New York. In Biru, they visit Malaysia and Singapore, in Mahadewa Mahadewi Australia… If the quotations below are viewed in isolation they might seem ridiculous, but not if one keeps in mind the framing of the recent and present ideological environment of a largely Muslim society that has partly emerged from a period of authoritarianism and bodily control.
MM begins with a philosophical prologue about psychology: It seems that the border between craziness and sanity can no longer be a criterion in this life. Sometimes a natural craziness makes them endure in this crazy and sick world. If they allow themselves to be psychotic they will not become totally crazy p.
Batasan antara gila dan waras rasanya tidak bisa lagi dihajikan patokan dalam hidup ini. Adakalanya kegilaan alamiah membawa mereka bertahan hidup di dunia yang sick atau gila ini. Sedikit psikotik tidak akan membuat mereka gila total. Everybody carries the seeds of craziness.
I will delve into the human mind and penetrate human feeling. Through my stupidity I let you see me… naked. Dengan kebodohanku, kubiarkan dirimu melihat aku… Seperti telanjang […] Aku ada dalam dirimu. Semua ini tentang dirimu. The backdrop to craziness is given by the world the characters move through, which involves motifs of human tragedy, such as murder, corruption, overdoses and abortion.
This novel neither has a clear structure nor is it divided into chapters. The fragmentary narrative even affirms a momentary worldview: I live in the present.
Yet I am convinced that if I appreciate a certain moment, that will eliminate regrets over that the moment has occurred. Aku kurang menghargai momen dalam hidup ini. Sedangkan saat ini aku yakin bahwa penghargaan terhadap suatu momen akan mengeliminasi penyesalan atas terjadinya momen tersebut. In contrast with Saman it does not have much of social content or clear settings.
It is mental: Adding to the perception is the casting in wayang cosmology: The main characters are victims in a game played by a dalang mastermind. The characters ask philosophical questions about the meaning of life Kako: The play with illusion is enhanced by the end where the story began, which is a cyclic motif, when Kako finds out that what has happened to her has perhaps never happened. In addition, all characters are related somehow. They kill each other in an end fight over Kako.
The subjectivity and detachment of wayang merges well with the subjective fragmentary worldview of the metropolis. The moments of love, sex and other pleasures are very important moments for Kako and the imaginary characters.
The moments that are most intensely felt are those of love and sexual pleasure. No solution other than to cherish the moment is offered, except the stability of commitment in love. Is Kako in the end at a new beginning or somewhere else?
The unresolved question differentiates the novel from wayang, the world of certainty, so does its morals, which are individual as in existentialism: Kako has carried out an abortion.
The social ideology of Kako and the author is identified with that of the stratum of the rather affluent in the metropolis, to which almost all characters belong. The main character, Kako is an Indo Japanese-Sunda from a rather wealthy family and moves without contradictions between cultures.
She is a vague Muslim with liberal ideas and enjoys the freedom to choose, similar to the Western bourgeoisie. Religion is discussed but does not play a central role.
But she also moves in Muslim environments without much contradiction. No ideology other than pluralism is proselytized through her. Kako never judges anybody but herself. The explicitness of love, sex and homosexuality has, as stated, a political function for the liberal authors. MM speaks about the mental spiritual condition of metropolitan society. It is truly about ideological adaptation in a time of rapid change.
MM explicitly addresses the condition of the metropolitan mind and offers a diagnosis from which we are to move on from an open end. Something is wrong but the diagnosis is finally left to the reader whom the novel is about. In the end one must consider what is real in life before moving on. Will I do the same again? Mulder describes the Javanese worldview. Until about , Yogyakarta was a quiet Javanese town with a well-known university, tourist sites and a local sultanate.
Now the area has hundreds of thousands students of higher education from all over Indonesia. Many writers have therefore had their base in Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta was also a resistance stronghold during the anti-Soeharto struggle. The survey found a conscious literature that socialises ideas and critiques of authors from this area. Novels originating from this environment are generally written in realist styles and are more structured and closer to NGO discourses than are the metropolitan novels.
Fragmentary narratives are rare; rather an effort to be progressive and conscious is noticeable. Fragrant popular literature and student type novels, which have a large local market, appear as well, but are not the concern here. Cantik itu Luka hereafter CIL, Kurniawan b is a historical novel, as defined by the fact that the author was not yet born at the time most of the described events occurred.
It is a micro-narrative novel against prejudice and discrimination with elements of the Bildungsroman.
The characters create an organisation that works to implement laws favourable for handicapped and to supply equipment for them. Bear with the author. There is no room for an appendix but the analysis involves a summary. Better read the novel. CIL is also a family chronicle of about one hundred years set in a fictive town on the periphery of the world system Moretti.
A direct comparison between Latin American novels and CIL would be interesting but is outside of the scope here. The author views the form as appropriated, just like the novel form in general is appropriated, in the same way as, for instance, Pramoedya was inspired by Steinbeck and Gorki.
Elements from Marquez and other Latin American writers are present in CIL, such as realism in a mythical world and the mingling of myths and socio-historical events in which the mythical places reveal another reality. The mode is different from Western realist styles and transcends both the fantastic and social realms. In marvellous realism, real and fantastic elements coexist without contradiction. Indonesia has a similar history to Latin America, one of indigenous cultures, colonialism and a subsequent cold war ideological struggle with Western covert interventions resulting in military dictatorships.
CIL is local Sundanese-Indonesian in the sense that the setting is a rather isolated harbour town by the south coast close to central Java. It is one of the few novels that offer a socio-historical analysis of Indonesian society. They are excessively local: Shodanco is the highest local authority, a Lieutenant Colonel who was the first to organise his shodan unit of Japanese-trained militiamen to rebel against the occupiers.
He is the Soeharto of Halimunda and owes his reputation to his contribution to the revolution. Shodanco is initially a hero, the one the townspeople ask for help in times of trouble, such as the wild boar plague he successfully wipes out p. Shodanco is rather humble in the sense that he just wants to remain Shodanco and Lt. He is happy when his promotion to national commander is cancelled: Like Shodanco he was a revolutionary in the war for independence.
History is interrupted by exterior forces and completes a cycle. The dominant social forces are gangsterism and militarism. Questions of identity — family, national and cultural — are touched upon while reaching a conclusion of mutual love and solidarity. Sperti also offers lessons into evolving transnational dignity norms, which are increasingly central to sexual orientation rights claims. As Sperti notes, the rise of dignity and the legal potential of marriage equality for same-sex couples are historically contemporaneous occurrences.
Rather than generalizing about the meaning of dignity from disparate cases, Sperti derives new or at least newly justifiable findings about the adjudicatory uses of dignity norms. Her rigorous evaluation of the utility of dignitarian norms in these cases is rich with insight.
It is one of the many strengths of her central marriage chapter. It felt more like a coda that an additional substantive section of the book. Indeed, I believe the book would have been even more compelling if it were fully re-oriented as a marriage equality book. As a final note, the work and the reader would have benefited from a substantive conclusion.
The author has so convincingly demonstrated her mastery of these topics, that I was eager to review the aggregate lessons of her four areas of focus, or alternatively, to compare and contrast the discrete lessons from the four topics. It would have further enriched a very worthwhile read.Therefore she cannot die.
The journalistic style novel by Widowati a in When Larung finally has performed his well- planned euthanasia, another non-sacral motif, he slices up Simbah to find the hidden mantra charms in her belly.
A direct comparison between Latin American novels and CIL would be interesting but is outside of the scope here. The garden where I can dance as I want in any style that I desire. Three other women have chosen unconventional approaches to life.
Deaths in custody Deaths in custody and torture by police personnel were reported by human rights organizations.